Basic English Grammar: Adjective

Basic English Grammar: Adjective

An adjective describes/qualifies a noun by giving some information about an object’s size, shape, age, colour, origin or material.

For example,

  • India is a large country. (The word ‘large’ describes the size of the country)

  • Ooty is a famous hill station. (The word ‘famous’ describes the popularity of the place)

  • The clever man fooled the woman. (The word ‘clever’ describes the man’s intelligence)

Type 1: Qualitative Adjective

A qualitative adjective describes the size, shape, colour or attribute of a person or thing.

  • What a beautiful palace!

  • I never wear a white shirt.

  • Why have you given me a broken pen to write with?

Type 2: Quantitative Adjective

A quantitative adjective describes the amount or quantity of uncountable nouns and number of countable nouns.

  • Geetha believes that successful people show little kindness.

  • The examination was taken by seventy-eight candidates all over India.

Type 3: Emphasizing Adjective

Emphasizing adjective is used to emphasize a statement. For example,

  • Sheeba has seen all those happened that day with her own eyes.

  • He is the very boy who was disturbing the class.

Type 4: Ordering of Adjective

Often a noun is qualified by more than one adjective. In such a case, it is important to decide how the adjectives should be ordered or sequenced – which adjective should come first, which second and so on.

  • I recently bought a beautiful old German made sports bike at an auction.

  • Her new golden silk saree was ruined by the laundry.

  • The meeting was held in an impressive high round arena.

Type 5: Comparison of Adjectives

When we compare the quality or quantity of two or more things or persons with the help of an adjective, the comparison is of one of the following three types:

  • Positive Adjective

  • Comparative Adjective

  • Superlative Adjective

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Tall

Taller

Tallest

Cool

Cooler

Coolest

Easy

Easier

Easiest

1) The Positive degree is used either to describe a single thing or person or in comparisons that are at the same level. For example,

  • Manoj is very witty.

  • Madhan is as witty as Manoj.

2) The Comparative degree is used for unequal comparisons between the quality or quantity of two things or persons. For example,

  • The Eiffel Tower is taller than the Qutub Minar.

  • The river Yamuna is shorter than the Nile.

3) The Superlative degree is used when one thing or person is singled out in a comparison that involves several things or persons. For example,

  • The Burj Khalifa is the tallest building in the world.

  • Kavya’s hog-nosed bat is the smallest mammal in the world.

When we compare the quality or quantity of two or more things or persons with the help of an adjective, the comparison is of one of the following three types:

  • Positive Adjective

  • Comparative Adjective

  • Superlative Adjective

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Tall

Taller

Tallest

Cool

Cooler

Coolest

Easy

Easier

Easiest

1) The Positive degree is used either to describe a single thing or person or in comparisons that are at the same level. For example,

  • Manoj is very witty.

  • Madhan is as witty as Manoj.

2) The Comparative degree is used for unequal comparisons between the quality or quantity of two things or persons. For example,

  • The Eiffel Tower is taller than the Qutub Minar.

  • The river Yamuna is shorter than the Nile.

3) The Superlative degree is used when one thing or person is singled out in a comparison that involves several things or persons.

For example,

  • The Burj Khalifa is the tallest building in the world.

  • Kavya’s hog-nosed bat is the smallest mammal in the world.

Types of Comparative Forms

While most adjectives take an –er suffix in their comparative form, many retain their positive form and take ‘more’ or ‘less’ before them.

  • As a pet, a dog is more faithful than a cat. (not faithfuller)

  • She is more hard-working than her brother. (not harder-working)

Adjectives with two or more syllables usually form their comparative degree with ‘more’ or ‘less’.

  • Difficult – more difficult/less difficult

  • Intelligent – more intelligent/less intelligent

  • Foolish – more foolish/less foolish

  • Normal – more normal/less normal

  • Nervous – more nervous/less nervous

  • Important – more important/less important

  • Active – more active/less active

The present and past participles of verbs used as adjectives (participial adjectives) build their comparative degree with ‘more’ or ‘less’.

  • Interesting – more interesting/less interesting

  • Concerned – more concerned/less concerned

  • Worn – more worn/less worn

  • Cooked – more cooked/less cooked

The comparative degree of adjectives is usually followed by ‘than’ to make the comparison, but the following are a few exceptions to this:

  • Junior + to

  • Senior + to

  • Inferior + to

  • Superior + to

  • Preferable + to

These comparative degrees of the adjectives do not take ‘more’ or ‘less’ before them. The adjectives ‘good’, ‘bad’ and ‘far’ are special cases with the following comparative and superlative degrees:

  • Good-better-best

  • Bad-worse-worst

  • Far-farther/further-farthest/furthest

Adjectives that take ‘more’ or ‘less’ to build their comparative form take ‘the most’ or ‘the least’ to build their superlative form.

  • Difficult-more difficult-the most difficult

  • Important-more difficult-the most difficult

  • Concerned-less concerned-the least concerned

  • Active-less active-the least active.

Continue reading

chennai race coaching institute for bank ssc tnpsc insurance

Courses

Branch Address

Exams