Biology Plant Morphology-2- PDF Material for SSC & RRB Exams
1. Flower is defined as highly condensed and modified reproductive shoot.
2. The part from where flower arise is called bract.
3. Flower has short or long flower stalk which is called pedicel.
4. The upper part of pedicel is swollen, spherical shaped or conical which is called thalamus / Receptacle.
5. Calyx is the sepals of a flower, typically forming a whorl that encloses the petals and forms a protective layer around a flower in bud.
6. The corolla of a flower is the structure and pattern made up by its petals. This is usually a circular ring around the center of the flower with one or more layers of petals.
7. The stamens of a flower collectively known as Androceium. It is the male part of the flower.
8. Gynoceium the female part of a flower, consisting of one or more carpels.
9. When the thalamus is convex or elongated, the carpel occupies the top most position on it. The other floral members (sepals, petals, and stamens) are placed below them. This mode of arrangement is called hypogyny.
10. When the thalamus is cup shaped, the lower part of the ovary situated at thebottom of the cup and also fused with the inner wall of thalamus. The other floral members appear to be inserted upon the ovary is called Epigyny.
11. The receptacle is flat or slightly cup-shaped. The carpels are situated at its centre and other floral members are inserted on its margin is called Perigyny
12. The perianth (perigonium, perigon or perigone) is the non-reproductive part of the flower, and structure that forms an envelope surrounding the sexual organs, consisting of the calyx (sepals) and the corolla (petals).
13. Complete Flower – When calyx, corolla, androecium and gynoecium are present.
14. Incomplete Flower –Flower with one of the four whorls missing.
15. Bisexual Flower – Both gynoecium and androecium present in the same flower.
16. Unisexual Flower – Androecium (staminode flower) or gynoecium (Pistillate flower) any one of them are present in the flower.
17. Monoecious Plant –When both male and female flowers are present on the same plant. eg. Cocos, Ricinus, Colocasia, Zea, Acalypha.
18. Dioecious Plant – When male and female flowers are present on separate plant eg. Mulberry, Papaya.
19. Polygamous Plant – When unisexual (male or female), bisexual and neuter flowers are present on the same plant eg. Mango, Polygonum.
20. Monocarpic Plant –The plant which produces flowers and fruits only once in life eg. Pea, Mustard, Bamboo, Agave.
21. Polycarpic Plant – The plants which produces flowers and fruits many times in life, eg. Pear, Mango.
22. Achlamydeous Flower –Flowers are naked without sepals and petals eg. piperaceae.
23. Monochlamydeous Flower: Only one accessory whorl is present (Perianth) eg. Polygonaceae, Liliaceae.
24. Dichlamydeous Flower: Both accessory whorls present in flower.
25. Hemicyclic or Spirocyclic Flower: Some of the floral parts are incircles and some are spirally arranged. eg. Ranunculaceae.
26. Cauliflory: Production of flowers on old stem from dormant buds eg. Artrocarpus, Ficus.
27. If the floral leaves are cyclic arranged in a flower, then it is called cyclic flower.
28. If floral leaves are spirally arranged then it is called spiral flower.
29. When flower is divided by any vertical plane into two equal halves, then it is called actinomorphic flower eg. Mustard, China rose, Datura, Chilli.
30. When the flower is divided into two equal halves only by one vertical plane, then it is called zygomorphic flower eg. Pea, Bean, Gulmohur, Cassia.
31. When the flower cannot be divided into two equal halves from any plane, then it is called asymmetrical flower. eg. Canna.
32. Internode between calyx and corolla is called anthophore. egSilane
33. Internode between corolla and androecium is called androphore. eg. Passiflora
34. Internode between androecium and gynoecium is called gynophore. eg. Capparis.
35. When both androphore and gynophore both conditions are found in same flower then this condition is called gynandrophore or androgynophore. eg. Cleome gynandra.
36. Carpophore –Elongation of thalamus beyond carpels. eg. Coriandrum
37. Bracts are specialized leaves present in axis of flower.
38. The flower which have bract is called bracteate flower.
39. Thewhorl of bract surrounding peduncle is called involucre.
40. Group of bracteole is called involucel.
41. In flowers when large bract completely encloses whole inflorescence, then it is called spathe. eg. Banana, Maize.
42. When the size of bract of flower is greater than size of flower and these are of various coloured then it is called petaloid bract. eg. Bougainvillea.
43. Small, dry, scaly bracts are called Glumes. eg. Wheat, Grass
44. when all the sepals are free from each other, then it is called poly-sepalous condition eg. Mustard, Radish.
45. When the sepals are fused each other, then it is called gamosepalous condition eg. Cotton, Datura, Brinjal.
46. Caducous– Sepals fall just at the time of opening of flower bud. eg. Poppy.
47. Deciduous – Sepals fall after pollination eg. Mustard
48. Persistant – If sepals do not fall and remain attached to fruit. eg. Tomato, Capsicum, Brinjal, Cotton, Datura.
49. Cruciform – 4 petals are present in it. The lower narrow part of petal is called claw while the outer broad part is called limb. These petals are arranged crosswise. eg. Radish, Mustard.
50. Caryophyllaceous – It consists of 5 petals the claw of petals are short and the limb of petals from right angle to the claw eg. Dianthus.
51. Rosaceous – It consist of 5 or more petals. Claws are absent in it and limbs are spread regularly outwards. eg. Rose, Coconut.
52. Campanulate – Five petals are arranged like bell. eg. Tobacco, Raspberry, Campanula.
53. Funnel shaped or infundibuliform – Funnel like petals arrangement eg. Datura, Railway creeper.
54. Tubular – Petals are like tube eg. Disc florets of sunflower.
55. The mode of arrangement of sepals or petals in floral bud with respect to the other members of the same whorl is known as aestivation.
56. Clawed: The petal is narrow and slender at the base as a claw eg. Petals of Cruciferae.
57. Fimbriate: Petals fringed with hairy, teeth like structure eg. Dianthus
58. Laciniate: Petal divided into several long more or less equal segments.
59. Spurred: Corolla with a long hollow projection called spur eg. Delphinium majus
60. Saccate: The lower part of the corolla tube gets dilated to form a sac- like structure eg. Antirrhinum.
61. Valvate Aestivation: Sepals or petals in a whorl just meet by their edges without overlapping. eg. Sepals of Hibiscus.
62. Twisted Aestivation: one margin of each sepal or petal overlaps the next one, and the other margin is overlapped by a preceding one. Here the over lapping is regular in one direction-clockwise or anticlockwise. eg. Petals of Hibiscus
63. Imbricate Aestivation: one sepal or petal is internal or being overlapped on both the margins and one sepal or petal is external with both of its margins overlapping. Of the remaining sepals or petals, one margin is overlapping and the other margin overlapped.
64. QuincuncialAestivation: : It is a modification of imbricate aestivation in which two petals are internal, two are external and the fifth one has one margin external and the other margin internal. eg. Guava
65. In some plants, a stamen may not develop any fertile anther. Such sterile stamens are called staminodes eg. Cassia.
66. Adnate– Filament runs through the whole length of the anther from the base to the apex. eg. Michelia (Champa), Magnolia.
67. Basifixed –Filament is attached to anther by its base. eg. Datura, Radish, Mustard.
68. Dorsifixed –The filament is attached at the centre to the back of the anther. eg. Passion flower
69. Versatile –Filament attached to the back of the anther at a point only, thus the anther can swing freely. eg. Wheat, grass, maize.
70. When the stamens of an androecium are free from one another, it is called polyandrous condition.
71. when stamens are united by their filament only, it is called adelphous.
72. Monoadelphous– When all the filaments are united into a single bundle but anthers are free from each other. eg. Cotton, Hollyhock, Ladyfinger.
73. Diadelphous – When the filaments are united in two bundles but the anther remains free eg. Gram, Pea, Bean
74. Polyadelphous – When filaments are united into more then two bundles. eg. Citrus, Castor.
75. Synandrous –When anthers as well as filaments of stamens are united through their whole length. eg. Colocasia, Alocasia, Momordica, Cucurbitaceae family
76. Syngenesious – In it only anthers are united in bundle but filaments remain free eg. Compositae family
77. When four stamens are present, out of them two are long and two are short, then it is called didynamous. eg. Labiatae family.
78. When there are six stamens and they are arranged in two whorls. In outer whorl, there are two short stamens while in inner whorl, there are four long stamens, this condition is called tetradynamous. eg. Cruciferae family.
79. Inserted – When the stamens are smaller than corolla. eg. Datura
80. Exserted – Stamens are longer than corolla and are radially outward. eg. Gulmohar.
81. Diplostemonous – The stamens are double the number of petals and present in two whorls. The outer whorl of stamens is alternating with petals (alternipetalous), while inner whorl is opposite to petals (antipetalous). eg. Liliaceae family.
82. Obdiplostemonous – It is reverse of diplostemonous. The outer whorl of stamen is opposite to petals, while inner whorl of stamen is alternating with petals. eg. Caryophyllaceae.
83. Isostemonous or Haplostemonous – In such type of condition stamens are present in single whorls. No. of stamens is equal to no. of sepals and petals and generally whorl of stamens is alternating with petals.
84. Heterostemonous –Stamens are of different length in some flowers.
85. The ovules are attached on ovary walls on one or more cushion called placenta.
86. The arrangement of ovule within ovary wall is known as placentation
87. Superficial placentation is found in multicarpellary syncarpous gynoecium. The ovules are attached on the walls of locule eg. Nymphea (Water lily).
88. Basal placentation: The ovary is unilocular and a single ovule is borne at the base of ovary. eg. Marigold, Sunflower (Asteraceae family).
89. Marginal placentation is found in unilocular ovary. The placenta forms a ridge along the ventral suture of the ovary and the ovules are borne on this ridge forming two rows. eg. Leguminosae
90. Parietal placentation is found in unilocular syncarpus ovary. In it the ovule develops on the innerwall of the ovary or on peripheral part. Ovary become bi or multilocular due to formation a false septum eg. Cucurbita, Argemone, and Cruciferae family (Mustard)
91. Axile placentation is found in multicarpellary syncarpous gynoecium. The fusion margin of carpels grown inward and meet in the centre of the ovary. eg. Potato, China rose, Onion, Lemon,
92. Free central placentation is found in syncarpous gynoecium. In it, the ovary is unilocular and the ovules are borne on the axis in the centre of the ovary. septum are absent in ovary. eg. Primrose, Dianthus (Caryophyllaceae)
93. Fertilized and ripened ovary is fruit
94. If a fruit is formed without fertilization of the ovary it is known as parthenocarpic fruit
95. Pericarp: After ripening, the ovary wall change into pericarp. This pericarp may by thick and fleshy or thick and hard or thin and soft.
96. When the fruit is developed only from the ovary, the fruit is called as true fruit. eg. Mango, Coconut, Zizyphus
97. In some fruits, in place of ovary, some other parts of flower like thalamus, inflorescence, calyx are modified to form a part of fruit. These types of fruit are called false fruits. eg. Apple, Strawberry, Pear.
98. When single fruit develops from a single ovary of a single flower, it is called simple fruit.
99. Fleshy fruits are broadly divided into two kinds, baccate and drupaceous.
100. Baccate fruits are fleshy fruits with no hard part except the seeds.
101. When pericarp is thick and fleshy, it is differentiated into the outer epicarp, the middle mesocarp and the inner endocarp
102. Drupe fruit develops from mono or multicarpellary, syncarpous, superior ovary. In these fruits endocarp is hard and stony so these fruits are also called stony fruits. eg. Mango, coconut almond, Peach walnut, plum.
103. Brachysclereids are present in endocarp.
104. In mango edible fleshy part is mesocarp and the part where seed is protected is called as endocarp.
105. In ber, epicarp and mesocarp both are edible part.
106. The rind of Almond and walnut are endocarp and their edible part is seed.
107. In coconut epicarp is hard and thin while mesocarp is thick and consist of hard fibers The endocarp is hard and seed is protected in it.
108. Endosperm is edible in coconut.
109. Berry fruits develop from mono or multicarpellary syncarpous ovary.
110. Plants with superior ovary = Tomato, Grapes, Brinjal.
111. Plants with inferior ovary = Guava, Banana
112. Pepo fruit develops from tricarpellary, syncarpous and inferior ovary eg. fruits of cucurbitaceae family.
113. Pome fruit develops from bi or multicarpellary syncarpous inferior ovary. eg. Apple, Pear.
114. Hesperidium develops from multicarpellary, syncarpous, superior ovary. This fruit is specialy found in plants of Rutaceae family. eg. Orange, Lemon, Citrus fruit
115. An aggregate fruit develops from a single flower, with multicarpellary, apocarpous, superior ovaries and each of them develops into simple fruitlets. An aggregate fruit, therefore consists of a collection of simple fruits as in Polyalthia.
116. Multiple or composite fruit is formed by all the flowers of a whole inflorescence grouped together to give a single big fruit. In a sense, multiple fruits are false fruits.
117. Sorosis: A multiple fruit that develops form a spicate inflorescence. eg. Ananas sativus (Pineapple).
118. Monocotyledon seed having embryo with one cotyledon only, eg. maize, rice, wheat and onion.
119. Dicotyledon seed having embryo with two cotyledons, eg. pea, gram, beanand castor.
120. Non-endospermic or ex-alubuminous seeds: In gram, pea and bean the cotyledons are thick and fleshy. They store food material for these of embryo during its germination.
121. Endospermic or albuminous seeds: In seeds like castor, maize and other cereals, the cotyledons are thin and membranous. In such seeds food is stored in the endosperm. Cotyledons act as absorbing organs. They absorb food from the endosperm and supply it to the growing embryo. Some edible fruits and parts.
|Fruit||Type of Fruit||Edible part|
|Abelmoschus esculentus / Lady’s Finger||Capsule||Whole fruit (vegetable)|
|Achrus sapota / Cheeku||Berry||Mesocarp and endocarp|
|Aegle marmelos / Wood Apple||Amphisarca||
Pulpy endocarp (inner
pericarp) and placentae.
|Anacardium occidentale / Cashewnut||Nut||Cotyledons and Peduncle|
|Ananas comosus / Pineapple||Sorosis||Outer fleshy axis, bracts fused perianth & Pericarp|
|Annona squamosa / Custard Apple||Etaerio of Berries||Mesocarp (Pericarp)|
|Arachis hypogea / Ground nut / Peanut||Lomentum||Seeds / Cotyledons|
|Areca catechu / Betel or Areca Nut||Berry||Seed / Endosperm|
|Artocarpus integrifolia / Jack Fruit||Sorosis||Bracts, perianth and seeds|
|Carica papaya / Papaya||Berry||Mesocarp and Endocarp|
Cereals, Avena sterilis (Oat), Oryza Caryopsis
sativa (Rice), Hordeum vulgare
(Barley), Triticum duram (Durum
Wheat), Triticum aestivum (Bread
Wheat), Zea mays (Maize)
Citrus reticulate / Orange, Citrus
sinensis / Sweet Orange, Citrus
aurantifolia / Lime
|Cocos nucifera / Coconut||Drupe||Endosperm|
|Cucumis melo / Musk Melon||Pepo||Mesocarp, Endocarp & seeds|
|Cucumis vulgaris / Water melon||Pepo||Mesocarp, Endocarp & seeds|
|Cucumis sativus / Cucumber||Pepo||
Mesocarp, Endocarp and
|Ficus carica / Fig / Anjeer||Syconus||Fleshy receptacle|
|Fragaria vesca / Strawberry||Etaerio of achenes||Fleshy thalamus|
|Grewia asiatica / Dhamin / Phalsa||Drupe||Mesocarp|
|Juglans regia / Walnut||Drupe||Lobed cotyledons|
|Litchi chinensis / Litchi||Nut||Aril|
|Lycopersicon esculentum / Tomato||Berry||Pericarp and placenta|
|Pyrus malus (M. sylvestris) / Apple||Pome||Thalamus|
|Mangifera indica / Mango||Drupe||Mesocarp|
|Morus alba, M. nigra / Mulberry||Sorosis||Fleshy perianth, Fleshy axis|
|Phoenix dactylifera / Date||Berry||Pericarp|
|Prunus amygdalus / Almond||Drupe||
Seed (Cotyledons and
|Musa paradisiaca / Banana||Berry||
Less developed Mesocarp and
well developed endocarp
|Psidium guajava / Guava||Berry||
Thalamus, pericarp and
|Pulses||Pod / Legume||Seed|
|Punica granatum, Pomegranate / Anar||Balausta||Testa|
|Pyrus comunis / Pear||Pome||Fleshy thalamus|
|Solanum melongena / Brinjal||Berry||Pericarp & Placenta|
|Tamarindus indica / Tamarind||Lomentum||Pericarp (Mesocarp)|
|Trapa bispinosa / WaterChestnut / Singhara||Nut||Seed|
|Vitis vinifera / Grape||Berry||Pericarp and placenta|
|Zizyphus mauritiana / Jujube / Chinese Dates / Ber||Drupe||Epicarp and mesocarp|
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