Indian History Short Note & Expected Qns Free Download PDF
Dear SSC & RRB Aspirants,
Indian history is among the topics in which the central Govt Organization tests the aspirant’s knowledge about the historical events happened in India. Around 3 to 5 Questions in any SSC & RRB Examinations will be asked from the topic which would be very lengthy in nature and we have provided a short note on the sections which we expect to be tested in upcoming Railway NTPC & SSC Examinations.
So, Let us move on to the Topic below. Take your time to study the content. We also provided the Indian History Free Multi-Choice Question PDF Material (Mobile Optimized) at the end of this Post. We advise all the SSC & RRB Aspirants to make use of this content below and try to answer the questions available on the Material PDF.
Chronology of Indian Historical events:
>> 3000-2500 Indus Valley Civilization
>> Birth of Gautam Buddha; Nirvana (483 B. C.)
>> Birth of Mahavir, Nirvana (527 B. C.)
>> Alexander’s invasion of India. It opened the land route 1739 between India and Europe
>> Ashoka’s Reign
>> Battle of Kalinga, Ashoka renounced war and violence
>> Beginning of Vikram Era (Calendar)
>> Beginning of Saka Era, Accession of Kanishka
>> Beginning of Gupta dynasty
>> Visit of Fahyan (Chinese Traveller) to India
>> Harshvardhan’s Reign
>> Hieun Tsang’s travel in India
>> Arab Invasion of Sindh (by Mohammad-Bin-Qasim)
>> 1001-1026 Sultan Mahmood Ghaznavi attacks on India
>> 1025-26 Som Nath Temple sacked by Mahmood Ghaznavi
>> First Battle of Tarain, Mohammad Ghauri was defeated by Prithvi Raj Chauhan
>> Second Battle of Tarain, Mohammad Ghauri defeated Prithvi Raj Chauhan
>> Vijaynagar Empire founded in South India
>> Bahmani Kingdom founded in South India
>> Invasion of India by Taimur Lang; Delhi sacked
>> Birth of Guru Nanak, founder of Sikhism
>> Vasco-de-Gama discovered the sea-route to India via the Cape of Good Hope, arrived at Calicut
>> Babur’s invasion; First Battle of Panipat; the foundation of Mughal Rule in North India(1526)
>> Second Battle of Panipat; Death of Humayun, Accession of Akbar to the throne (1556)
>> Battle of Talikota; abolition of Jazia
>> Battle of Haldighati
>> 1600 East India Company established in India
>> 1605 Death of Akbar and accession of Jahangir
>> 1627 Birth of Shivaji.
>> 1680 Death of Shivaji
>> 1707 Death of Aurangzeb; Death of Guru Govind Singh; fall of the Mughal Empire begins
>> 1739 Nadir Shah invaded India; The Peacock Throne has been taken away by him to Iran
>> 1757 Battle of Plassey
>> 1760 Battle of Wandiwash; End of French power in India
>> 1761 Third Battle of Panipat 1764 Battle of Buxar
>> 1793 Permanent Settlement in Bengal
>> 1799 Fourth Mysore war; Death of Tipu Sultan; Partition of Mysore; Ranjit Singh occupied Lahore and made it a capital
>> 1818 The fourth and the last Anglo Maratha War
>> 1833 Death of Raja Ram Mohan Roy
>> 1835 Introduction of English as a medium of instruction
>> 1853 The First Indian Railway line opened from Bombay to Thane; The first telegraph communication
>> 1856 (23rd July), Birth of Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Timeline of Indian Freedom Struggle
|Year||Indian Freedom Struggle: Important Events|
|1857||Mutiny against the British|
|1885||Indian National Congress is founded by A.O. Hume|
|1905||Partition of Bengal announced|
|1906||Muslim League was founded at Decca on 31st December.|
|1908||Khudiram Bose was executed on 30th April.|
|1908||Tilak was sentenced to six years on charges of sedition on 22nd July.|
|1909||Minto-Morley Reforms of the Indian Councils Act – 21st May.|
|1911||Delhi Durbar held. Partition of Bengal is canceled.|
|1912||New Delhi established as the new capital of India|
|1912||A Bomb was thrown on Lord Hardinge on his state entry into Delhi on 23rd December.|
|1914||The Ghadar Party was formed at San Francisco on 1st November|
|1914||Tilak was released from jail on 16th June.|
|1914||An outbreak of the 1st World War 4th August|
|1914||Komagatamaru ship reaches Budge Budge (Calcutta port) on 29the September.|
|1915||Mahatma Gandhi arrived in India on 9th Jan|
|1915||Gopal Krishna Gokhale died on 19th February.|
|1916||Tilak founded Indian Home Rule League with its headquarters at Poona on 28th April.|
|1916||Annie Besant started another Home Rule League on 25th September.|
|1917||Mahatma Gandhi launches the Champaran campaign in Bihar to focus attention on the grievances of indigo planters in April|
|1917||The Secretary of State for India, Montague, declares that the goal of the British government in India is the introduction of Responsible Government on 20th August.|
|1918||Beginning of trade union movement in India.|
|1919||Rowlatt Bill introduced on Feb 16, 1919.|
|1919||The Jallianwala Bagh tragedy took place on 13th April in Amritsar.|
|1919||The House of Commons passes the Montague Chelmsford Reforms or the Government of India Act, 1919 on 5th December. The new reforms under this Act came into operation in 1921.|
|1920||The first meeting of the All India Trade Union Congress, (under Narain Malhar Joshi).|
|1920||The Indian National Congress (INC) adopts the Non-Co-operation Resolution in December.|
|1920-22||Mahatma Gandhi suspends Non-Co-operation Movement on Feb 12 after the violent incidents at Chauri Chaura.|
|1922||Moplah rebellion on the Malabar coast in August.|
|1923||Swaraj Party was formed by Motilal Nehru and others on 1st January.|
|1924||The Communist Party of India starts its activities at Kanpur.|
|1925||The Kakori Train Conspiracy case in August|
|1927||The British Prime Minister appoints Simon Commission to suggest future constitutional reforms in India.|
|1928||Simon Commission arrives in Bombay on Feb 3. An all-India hartal is called. Lala Lajpat Rai assaulted by police at Lahore.|
|1928||Nehru Report recommends principles for the new Constitution of India. All parties conference considers the Nehru Report, Aug 28-31, 1928.|
|1928||Lala Lajpat Rai died on 17th November due to injuries.|
|1929||Sarda Act passed: prohibits marriage of girls below 14 and boys below 18 years of age.|
|1929||All Parties Muslim Conference formulates the ‘Fourteen Points’ under the leadership of Jinnah on 9th March.|
|1929||Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwari Dutt throw a bomb in the Central Legislative Assassination on 8th April.|
|1929||Lord Irwin’s announced that the goal of British policy in India was the grant of the Dominion status on 31st October.|
|1929||The Lahore session of the INC adopts the goal of complete independence (Poorna swarajya) for India; Jawaharlal Nehru hoists the tricolor on the banks of the Ravi at Lahore on 31st December.|
|1930||First Independence Day observed on 26th January.|
|1930||The Working Committee of the INC meets at Sabarmati and passes the Civil Disobedience resolution on 14th February.|
|1930||Mahatma Gandhi launches the Civil Disobedience movement with his epic Dandi Mar (Mar 12 to Apr 6). The first phase of the Civil Disobedience movement: Mar 12, 1930, to Mar 5, 1931.|
|1930||First Round Table Conference begins in London to consider the report of the Simon Commission on 30th November.|
|1931||On 5th March, the Gandhi Irwin pact was signed and the Civil Disobedience movement was suspended.|
|1931||Bhagat Singh, Sukh Dev, and Rajguru were executed on 23rd March.|
|1931||Second Round Table Conference took place on 7th September.|
|1931||Gandhiji returns from London after the deadlock in IInd RTC on 28th December. Launches the Civil Disobedience Movement. The INC declared illegal.|
|1932||Gandhiji was arrested and imprisoned without trial on 4th January.|
|1932||British Prime Minister Ramsay Macdonald announced the infamous “Communal Award” on 16th August.|
|1932||Gandhiji in jail begins his epic “fast unto death” against the Communal Award on 20th September and ends the fast on 26th of the same month after the Poona Pact.|
|1932||The Third Round Table Conference begins in London (Nov 17 to Dec 24)|
|1933||Gandhiji released from prison as he begins fast for self-purification on 9th May. INC suspends the Civil Disobedience movement but authorizes Satyagraha by individuals.|
|1934||Gandhiji withdraws from active politics and devotes himself to constructive programs (1934-39).|
|1935||The Government of India Act 1935 was passed on 4th August|
|1937||Elections held in India under the Act of 1935 (Feb 1937). The INC contests election and forms ministries in several provinces (Jul 1937).|
|1938||Haripura session of INC was held on 19th February. Subhash Chandra Bose was elected Congress president on the 20th of February.|
|1939||Tripuri session of the INC was conducted from the 10th to the 12th of March.|
|1939||Subhash Chandra Bose resigns as the president of the INC in April.|
|1939||Second World War (Sep 1). Great Britain declares war on Germany on 3rd September; the Viceroy declares that India too is at war.|
|1939||Between 27th October to 5th November, the Congress ministries in the provinces resign in protest against the war policy of the British government.|
|1939||The Muslim League observes the resignation of the Congress ministries as ‘Deliverance Day’ on 22nd December.|
|1940||Lahore session of the Muslim League passes the Pakistan Resolution in March|
|1940||Viceroy Linlithgow announces-August Offer on 10th of August.|
|1940||Congress Working Committee rejects the ‘August Offer’ between 18th to the 22nd of August.|
|1940||Congress launches an Individual Satyagraha movement on 17th October.|
|1941||Subhash Chandra Bose escapes from India on 17 January; arrives in Berlin (Mar 28).|
|1942||Churchill announces the Cripps Mission on 11th of March|
|1942||The INC meets in Bombay; adopts ‘Quit India’ resolution on 7th & 8th August.|
|1942||Gandhiji and other Congress leaders were arrested on 9th August|
|1942||Quit India movement begins on 11th of August; the Great Aug Uprising.|
|1942||Subhash Chandra Bose established the Indian National Army ‘Azad Hind Fauj’ on 1st September.|
|1943||Subhash Chandra Bose proclaims the formation of the Provisional Government of Free India on 21st October.|
|1943||Karachi session of the Muslim League adopts the slogan Divide arc in December.|
|1944||Wavell calls Simla Conference in a bid to form the Executive Council at Indian political leaders on 25th January.|
|1946||Mutiny of the Indian naval ratings in Bombay.|
|1946||Cabinet Mission arrives in New Delhi (Mar 14); British Prime Minister Attlee announces Cabinet Mission to propose a new solution to the Indian deadlock on 15th March; issues proposal (May 16).|
|1946||Jawaharlal Nehru takes over as Congress president on 6th July.|
|1946||Wavell invites Nehru to form an interim government on 6th August; Interim Government takes office (Sep 2).|
|1946||The first session of the Constituent Assembly of India starts on 9th December. Muslim League boycotts it.|
|1947||On 20th February, British Prime Minister Attlee declares that the British government would leave India not later than Jun 1948.|
|1947||Lord Mountbatten, the last British Viceroy and Governor General of India, sworn in on 24th March|
|1947||Mountbatten Plan was made on 3rd June for the partition of India and the announcement was made on June 4th that transfer to power will take place on August 15th|
Summary of Indian History
The history of India begins with evidence of human activity of Homo sapiens, as long as 75,000 years ago, or with earlier hominids including Homo erectus from about 500,000 years ago.
The Indus Valley Civilization, which spread and flourished in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent from c. 3300 to 1300 BCE in present-day Pakistan and northwest India, was the first major civilization in South Asia.
A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture developed in the Mature Harappan period, from 2600 to 1900 BCE.
This Bronze Age civilization collapsed at the start of the second millennium BCE and was later followed by the Iron Age Vedic Civilization, which extended over much of the Indo-Gangetic plain and which witnessed the rise of major polities known as the Mahajanapadas.
In one of these kingdoms, (Magadha), Mahavira and Buddha were born in the 6th or 5th century BCE and propagated their Shramanic philosophies.
Most of the subcontinent was conquered by the Maurya Empire during the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE. Various parts of India ruled by numerous Middle kingdoms for the next 1,500 years, among which the Gupta Empire stands out.
Southern India saw the rule of the Chalukyas, Cholas, Pallavas, and Pandyas. This period, witnessing a Hindu religious and intellectual resurgence, is known as the classical or “Golden Age of India”.
During this period, aspects of Indian civilization, administration, culture, and religion (Hinduism and Buddhism) spread to much of Asia, while kingdoms in southern India had maritime business links with the Roman Empire from around 77 CE.
Muslim rule started in some parts of north India in the 13th century when the Delhi Sultanate was established in 1206 CE.
During the reign of Alauddin Khilji and Muhammad bin Tughluq, the Delhi Sultanate ruled the major part of northern India in the early 14th century and raids were conducted into southern India. After the death of Muhammad bin Tughluq, the Delhi Sultanate declined and its territories were confined to some parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
The 15th century saw the emergence of several powerful Hindu kingdoms like the Vijayanagara Empire in south India, the Gajapati Kingdom in eastern India and Rajput kingdoms in northwestern India. The northern Deccan was ruled by the Bahmani Sultanate and parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain was still ruled by the Delhi Sultanate.
Mughal rule came from Central Asia to cover most of the northern parts of the subcontinent in the 16th century. Mughal rulers introduced Central Asian art and architecture to India.
In addition to the Mughals and various Rajput kingdoms, several independent Hindu states, such as the Vijayanagara Empire, the Maratha Empire, Eastern Ganga Empire, and the Ahom Kingdom, flourished contemporaneously in southern, western, eastern and northeastern India respectively.
The Mughal Empire suffered a gradual decline in the early 18th century, which provided opportunities for the Maratha Empire to exercise control over large areas in the subcontinent.
Beginning in the late 18th century and over the next century, large areas of India were annexed by the British East India Company. Dissatisfaction with Company rule led to the Indian Rebellion of 1857, after which the British provinces of India were directly administered by the British Crown and witnessed a period of both rapid developments of infrastructure and economic decline. During the first half of the 20th century, a nationwide struggle for independence was launched by the natives irrespective of caste, creed or religion, the leading party being Indian National Congress which was later joined by Muslim League as well.
The subcontinent gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1947 after the British provinces were partitioned into the dominions of India and Pakistan and the princely states all acceded to one of the new states.
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