Advanced Grammar Rule - ADJECTIVES
Definition: Adjectives of quantity show how much of a thing is meant. Adjectives of quantity (some; much, little, enough, all, no, any, great, half, sufficient, whole) are used for Uncountable Nouns only. For example,
- Incorrect-I ate a few rice.
- Correct- I ate some rice.
Rules: Numeral Adjectives are used for Countable Noun only and they show how many persons or things are meant or in what order a person or thing stands, For example,
- Incorrect- I have taught you little things.
- Correct- I have taught you a few things.
Rule 1: When cardinal and ordinal are used together ordinal precedes the cardinal. For example,
- Incorrect- The four first boys will be given the chance.
- Correct- The first four boys will be given the chance.
Rule 2: Later, latest refer to time, latter and last refer to position. For example,
- Incorrect- I reached at 10 am. But he was latter than I expected.
- Correct- I reached at 10 am. But he was later than I expected,
Rule 3: Farther means more distant or advanced; further means additional. For example,
- Incorrect- He insisted on farther improvement.
- Correct- He insisted on further improvement.
Rule 4: Each is used for the individual person or item, and the focus is on the individual, not the group. Every is also used for the individual, although the focus is shifted to the group.example,
- Incorrect- Every of the two boys will get a prize.
- Correct- Each of the two boys will get a prize.
Rule 5: To express quantity or degree some is used in affirmative sentences, any in negative or interrogative sentences. For example,
- Incorrect- Have you bought some mangoes?
- Correct- Have you bought any mangoes?
Rule 6: In comparing two things, the Comparative should be used, The Superlative should not be used.
- Incorrect- Which is the best of the two?
- Correct- Which is the better of the two?
Rule 7: When two qualities of the same person or thing are compared, the Comparative in-er is not used. ‘More’ is used for this purpose.
- Incorrect- He is wiser than brave.
- Correct- He is more wise than brave.
Rule 8: When comparison is made by means of a comparative, the thing compared should be excluded from the class of things with which it is compared by using ‘other’ or some such word.
- Incorrect- He is cleverer than any boy in the class.
- Correct- He is cleverer than any other boy in the class.
Rule 9: When comparison is made by means of a superlative, the thing compared should include the class of things with which it is compared.
- Incorrect- He is the strongest of all other men.
- Correct- He is the strongest of all men.
Rule 10: When two persons or things are compared, it is important that the same characteristic should be compared.
- Incorrect- The population of Bombay is greater than Delhi.
- Correct- The population of Bombay is greater than that of Delhi.
Rule 11: Double comparatives and superlatives should not be used.
- Incorrect- He is the most cleverest boy in the class.
- Correct- He is the cleverest boy in the class.
- Incorrect- He is more wiser than his brother.
- Correct- He is wiser than his brother.
Rule 12: The comparative Adjectives superior inferior, senior, junior, prior, anterior, posterior prefer, etc., should be followed by ‘to’ instead of ‘than’.
- Incorrect- He is senior than me.
- Correct- He is senior to me.
Rule 13: Adjectives like ‘unique’, ideal, perfect, complete, universal, entire, extreme, chief, full square and round, which do not admit different degrees of comparison should not be compared.
- Incorrect- It is the most unique thing.
- Correct- It is a unique thing.
Rule 14: All the Adjectives which refer to the same Noun should be in the same degree of comparison.
- Incorrect- He is the wisest and honest worker in the office.
- Correct- He is the wisest and most honest worker in the office.
Rule 15: ‘Elder’ and ‘eldest’ should be used for persons only, strictly speaking, they are used for the members of the same family only. ‘Older’ and ‘oldest’ are used for both persons and things.
- Incorrect- He is my older brother.
- Correct- He is my elder brother.