Fees are another important source of revenue for the government. A fee is charged by public authorities for rendering a service to the citizens. Unlike tax, there is no compulsion involved in case of fees. The government provides certain services and charges certain fees for them. For example, fees are charged for issuing of passports, driving licenses, etc.
2. Fines or Penalties
Fines or penalties are imposed as a form of punishment for breach of law or non fulfillment or certain conditions or for failure to observe some regulations. Like taxes, fines are compulsory payments without quid pro quo. But while taxes are generally imposed to collect revenue. Fines are imposed as a form of punishment or to prevent people from breaking the law. They are not expected to be a major source of revenue to the government.
3. Surplus from Public Enterprises
The Government also gets revenue by way of surplus from public enterprises. In India, the Government has set up several public sector enterprises to provide public goods and services. Some of the public sector enterprises do make a good amount of profits. The profits or dividends which the government gets can be utilized for public expenditure. There is some sort of quid-pro-quo in the case of surplus from public enterprises. This is because, the public gets goods and services, and the government gets prices, and consequently profits from selling such goods and services.
4. Special assessment of betterment levy
It is a kind of special charge levied on certain members of the community who are beneficiaries of certain government activities or public projects. For example, due to a public park in a locality or due to the construction of a road, people in that locality may experience an appreciation in the value of their property or land. Thus, due to public expenditure, some people may experience ‘unearned increments’ in their asset holding. Betterment levy is like a tax because it is a compulsory payment, but unlike a tax, in case of betterment levy there is some element of quid pro quo.
5. Grants and Gifts
Gifts are Voluntary contributions by individuals or institutions to the government. Gifts are significant source of revenue during war and emergency.
A grant from one government to another is an important sources of revenue in the modern days. The government at the Centre provides grants to State governments and the State governments provide grants to the local government to carry out their functions.
Grants from foreign countries are known as Foreign Aid. Developing countries receive military aid, food aid, technological aid, etc. from developed countries.
6. Deficit Financing
Deficit means an excess of public expenditure over public revenue.
This excess may be met by borrowings from the market, borrowings from abroad, by the central bank creating currency. In case of borrowing from abroad, there cannot be compulsion for the lender
GST is a comprehensive indirect tax on manufacture, sale and consumption of goods and services throughout India (Except state of Jammu and Kashmir) , to replace taxes levied by the central and state governments.
GST is a single tax on the supply of goods and services,right from the manufacturer to the consumer.Credits of input taxes paid at each stage will be available in the subsequent stage of value addition,which makes GST essentially a tax only on value addition at each stage.The final consumer will thus bear only the GSTcharged by the last dealer in the supply chain,with set-off benefits at all the previous stages
For the consumer
Single and transparent tax proportionate to the value of goods and services: Due to multiple indirect taxes being levied by the Centre and State, with incomplete or no input tax credits available at progressive stages of value addition, the cost of most goods and services in the country today are laden with many hidden taxes. Under GST, there would be only one tax from the manufacturer to the consumer, leading to transparency of taxes paid to the final consumer.
Relief in overall tax burden: Because of efficiency gains and prevention of leakages, the overall tax burden on most commodities will come down, which will benefit consumers.